Research on gifted children2018-05-30T00:02:41+00:00

Research on gifted children

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2017: Alignment of a high-ranked PISA mathematics curriculum and the Parallel Curriculum for gifted students: Is a high PISA Mathematics ranking indicative of curricular suitability for gifted learners? (€)

Quebec students have generally excelled in international mathematics comparisons and 22% performed in the top category, Level 6, on PISA in 2012. Several countries with more extensive gifted programs scored and ranked considerably lower and had smaller proportions achieving Level 6. Does this mean a general mathematics curriculum with such indices of success could sufficiently serve gifted students? The US NAGC’s Parallel Curriculum model served as a template to explore Quebec’s ninth-grade mathematics curriculum for components of the four Parallel Curriculum strands: core, connections, practice, and identity. The Quebec curriculum included a strong core, but fewer elements of the three other Parallels. The anomaly remains: A strong core curriculum was associated with high PISA scores and rankings, yet did not meet all the criteria for gifted programming. At the same time, even though the literature reports that formal gifted programming is sometimes associated with higher proportions of learners achieving at PISA’s level 6, such provision is not as well related to overall high PISA averages or rankings.

Julie Anne Irving, Ernestina Oppong & Bruce M. Shore (2017) Alignment of a high-ranked PISA mathematics curriculum and the Parallel Curriculum for gifted students: Is a high PISA Mathematics ranking indicative of curricular suitability for gifted learners?, Gifted and Talented International, 31:2, 114-131, DOI: 10.1080/15332276.2017.1356657

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: Gifted and Talented International | Onderwerpen: Canada

2017: Effects of full-time and part-time high-ability programs on developments in students’ achievement emotions (+)

This study focused on effects of high-ability programs on students’ achievement emotions, i.e. emotions that students experience that are associated with achievement activities. Participants were students in grade 4–6 of primary education: 218 students attended full-time high-ability programs, 245 attended part-time high-ability programs (i.e. external pull-out class). Using propensity score matching, they were matched to a control group of 189 students from regular education with similar cognitive abilities. The respondents filled out questionnaires on their achievement emotions three times during a school year. Results of multilevel analyses showed that students who attended full-time high-ability programs did not report more beneficial achievement emotions compared to similar students in regular education. In contrast, students in part-time programs experienced more positive and less negative emotions during the part-time program compared to the control group in regular education. No differences in longitudinal developments throughout the school year were found between the groups.

Lisette Hornstra, Ineke van der Veen & Thea Peetsma (2017) Effects of full-time and part-time high-ability programs on developments in students’ achievement emotions, High Ability Studies, 28:2, 199-224, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2017.1332575

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Nederland

2017: Self-concept changes in multiple self-concept domains of gifted students participating in a summer residential school (€)

The present study investigated changes in self-esteem, academic self-concept, intellectual self-concept, and social self-concepts of acceptance, assertion, relations with same-sex peers and relations with other-sex peers with 177 gifted students participating in a 16-day summer school in Germany. Students were assessed three times by self-report questionnaires, one or three weeks before the school started, at the seventh day, and at the fifteenth day of the summer school. Scales showed strict measurement invariance over time such that scale means could be compared by repeated measures ANOVAs. Although academic self-concept did not change over time, intellectual self-concept showed a decrease during the visit of the school that was of small effect size (Hedges’ g = .13). Descriptively, self-esteem showed a positive development over time, but this increase was small and not significant. The social self-concepts of acceptance, relations with same-sex peers, and relations with other-sex peers significantly increased over time (Hedges’ |g| between .14 and .40). Changes were comparable for male and female students. Overall, our findings support summer schools as an effective means to foster gifted students’ socioemotional needs.

Franzis Preckel, Hannah Rach & Vsevolod Scherrer (2017) Self-concept changes in multiple self-concept domains of gifted students participating in a summer residential school, Gifted and Talented International, 31:2, 88-101, DOI: 10.1080/15332276.2017.1304781

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: Gifted and Talented International | Onderwerpen: Germany

2017: Sense of belonging or feeling marginalized? Using PISA 2012 to assess the state of academically gifted students within the EU (+)

There are two competing stereotypes of gifted students: harmony theory (gifted students are well adjusted and successful in life) and disharmony theory (giftedness forms a threat to a harmonious development). In this context, the PISA 2012 data were used to explore middle-school students’ experiences in terms of sense of belonging, student–teacher relations and attitudes toward school concerning learning activities/outcomes. Fifteen-year-old students from 13 European countries were selected for this data-set (normative = 79,550, gifted = 1956). Student’s scores on the four scales were tested for significant differences with students from that same country. Tests revealed no significant differences for 55% of the comparisons, 40% of comparisons had positive effect sizes for gifted students, and 4% had negative effect sizes. The evidence presented in this study supports the existence of harmony theory. More specifically, the vast majority of gifted students in this study reported equal or higher level of belonging. Contained within the findings in this study on students’ to the sense of belonging is a lack of evidence of gifted students reporting higher levels of loneliness. These findings strongly reflect the Terman’s assertion almost a century ago stating the lack of gifted children tending to be more socially maladjusted.

Brian P. Godor & Antonia Szymanski (2017) Sense of belonging or feeling marginalized? Using PISA 2012 to assess the state of academically gifted students within the EU, High Ability Studies, 28:2, 181-197, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2017.1319343

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Belgie, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Nederland, Poland, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, United Kingdom

2017: Turkish adaptation of the educational-learning capital questionnaire: Results for gifted and non-gifted students (€)

The Actiotope Model of Giftedness (AMG) focuses on person–environment interactions to define giftedness. The development of the Questionnaire of Educational and Learning Capital (QELC) was based on the AMG. The first aim of this study was to present the reliability and validity of a Turkish version of the QELC for 10th grade students. The second aim of this study was the administration of the QELC in gifted and non-gifted students and the determination of mean QELC-scale differences between both groups. Two different samples were included in the study. In the first sample, 421 10th grade students took the QELC (147 boys, 274 girls). The second sample consisted of 38 gifted students and 38 non-gifted students, the latter randomly selected from the first sample. In addition to the QELC, confidence in one’s competence, failure coping, stability and modifiability beliefs regarding one’s action repertoire were assessed and used to validate the QELC. School grades were collected, too. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis supported the two-factor structure of the QELC (i.e., educational capital and learning capital). The results supported the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of QELC. Gifted students had lower scores in educational as well as learning capital than non-gifted students.

Marilena Z. Leana-Taşcılar (2017) Turkish adaptation of the educational-learning capital questionnaire: Results for gifted and non-gifted students, Gifted and Talented International, 31:2, 102-113, DOI: 10.1080/15332276.2016.1305863
Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: Gifted and Talented International | Onderwerpen: Turkey

2017: On the four types of characteristics of super mathematically gifted students (€)

In order to achieve the present study’s goal – to understand better the phenomenon of mathematical giftedness – we performed a multidimensional examination of the mental processing in students who exhibited mathematical expertise (EM) at the secondary school level. The study included participants from the three groups: students who excelled in school mathematics but were not identified as generally gifted (NG-EM), generally gifted excelling in mathematics (G-EM) students, and students with superior performance in mathematics (S-MG). The research integrated three salient dimensions of mental processing: domain-general cognitive traits, domain-specific (mathematical) creativity, and neuro-cognitive functioning expressed in event-related potentials (ERPs) when solving mathematical problems. In the three study dimensions, we found four types of characteristics of S-MG students: accumulative, G-related, unique and unraveling. This paper defines and exemplifies the characteristics of the four types.

Roza Leikin, Mark Leikin, Nurit Paz-Baruch, Ilana Waisman & Miri Lev (2017) On the four types of characteristics of super mathematically gifted students, High Ability Studies, 28:1, 107-125, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2017.1305330

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Israel

2017: Maximizing potential: A school-based conception of psychosocial development (€)

Optimal talent development can only occur when high ability students are willing to take opportunities for growth in a domain and are able to persist when presented with challenges that accompany performance or production at the highest levels. This paper proposes the use of Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development to provide a framework through which schools can pursue a parallel path of psychosocial supports to reinforce the development of talent in any domain. Ego strength can be fortified by an active program of professional development, curricula, and research based on Erikson’s psychosocial stage theory. In addition to the age-based components, ego strength can be promoted by activities that support the essential strengths of hope, will, purpose, skill, fidelity, and love.

Tracy L. Cross & Jennifer Riedl Cross (2017) Maximizing potential: A school-based conception of psychosocial development, High Ability Studies, 28:1, 43-58, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2017.1292896

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: United States

2017: The effects of a social and talent development intervention for high ability youth with social skill difficulties (€)

Contemporary models highlight the need to cultivate cognitive and psychosocial factors in developing domain-specific talent. This model was the basis for the current study where high ability youth with self-reported social difficulties (n = 28, 12 with a coexisting disability) participated in a social skills and talent development intervention over the course of a two-week summer enrichment program. Compared to high ability youth not in the social skills intervention (n = 9), participants reported positive changes in friendship qualities (help), indicating a treatment effect. Among all participants, positive changes were reported in friendship companionship and security, suggesting the talent development program alone had significant impact on psychosocial factors (friendship qualities). For those in the social skills group, higher scores on performance approach goal orientations were related to lower change scores in friendship closeness, suggesting if one is driven academically to outperform peers, this may negatively affect their ability to form close ties with peers.

Megan Foley-Nicpon, Susan G. Assouline, D. Martin Kivlighan, Staci Fosenburg, Charles Cederberg & Michelle Nanji (2017) The effects of a social and talent development intervention for high ability youth with social skill difficulties, High Ability Studies, 28:1, 73-92, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2017.1298997
Genre: Research on gifted children, Research on special populations
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: United States

2017: Elementary students’ perceptions of their classroom activities in China: A validation study (€)

This study is to investigate whether My Class Activities (MCA; Gentry & Gable, 2001a), an instrument developed to measure students’ perceptions of their classroom activities, yields valid data when used with elementary students in China after translation into Chinese. The four factors measured by the instrument (Interest, Challenge, Choice, and Enjoyment) are related closely to students’ motivation and optimal learning as described in Chinese literature. Data from 943 elementary students from a school in mid-China were used in the analyses from an elementary school. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that a four correlated factor model with all 31 items was not a good fit to the data. Factor loadings were checked, and two items were removed from the “challenge” factor. A second four correlated factor model with 29 items generated better goodness-of-fit indices. Measurement equivalence of this model was tested between the Chinese and the U.S. sample of 943 students randomly selected from the original normative sample of the MCA. Results indicated partial measurement invariance of the revised instrument. Further research was suggested with implications for practice.

Yang Yang, Marcia Gentry, Jiaxi Wu, Enyi Jen & Yukiko Maeda (2017) Elementary students’ perceptions of their classroom activities in China: A validation study, Gifted and Talented International, 31:2, 73-87, DOI: 10.1080/15332276.2016.1255095
Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: Gifted and Talented International | Onderwerpen: China

2017: Developing talents: A longitudinal examination of intellectual ability and academic achievement (€)

The Fullerton Longitudinal Study offers a unique opportunity to model the stability of intelligence and achievement and their relations from elementary through secondary school. Using latent variable modeling, we fit a cross-lagged panel model to examine the relations between intelligence and achievement in two academic domains: mathematics and reading. Findings revealed that students’ achievement is highly stable across the school years. Childhood intelligence is a strong predictor of initial mathematics and reading achievement. After age 7-years, intelligence is not predictive of either mathematics or reading achievement after accounting for prior achievement. Students who enter school with strong academic skills tend to maintain their academic advantage throughout their elementary and secondary education. We discuss the implications of these results for talent development.

D. Betsy McCoach, Huihui Yu, Allen W. Gottfried & Adele Eskeles Gottfried (2017) Developing talents: A longitudinal examination of intellectual ability and academic achievement, High Ability Studies, 28:1, 7-28, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2017.1298996

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: United States

2017: Why I believe I achieve determines whether I achieve (€)

The beliefs and values students hold toward themselves, given tasks, and achievement itself can influence what tasks students seek, and whether they are able to obtain them. On the basis of previous research on underachievement and motivation, we developed the Achievement Orientation Model (AOM) to explore the issue of student achievement. The model posits that individuals’ self-perceptions in three areas (self-efficacy, goal valuation, and environmental perceptions) interact to motivate students to self-regulate their behaviors and subsequently engage and achieve. Further, societal and cultural values influence students’ attitudes in the three areas of self-efficacy, goal valuation, and environmental perceptions, as well as their ability to self-regulate, through students’ interactions with their peers, parents, and teachers. In this paper, we discuss the components of the AOM, as well as the importance of talent development perspectives on shaping student attitudes that promote engagement and ultimately high levels of achievement.

Del Siegle, D. Betsy McCoach & Anne Roberts (2017) Why I believe I achieve determines whether I achieve, High Ability Studies, 28:1, 59-72, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2017.1302873
Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: United States

2017: Tentative guidelines for the development of an ability-based emotional intelligence intervention program for gifted students (€)

This paper presents a number of general principles and guidelines for the development of an emotional intelligence training program designed to foster emotional abilities in gifted students. The presented guidelines underscore the need for EI theory-driven program planning geared to the needs of gifted students; integrating activities into routine school activities; providing provisions for practice and feedback; careful monitoring of program activities; systematic program impact evaluation; and assuring professional development of program personnel. EI training for the gifted is critically discussed.

Moshe Zeidner (2017) Tentative guidelines for the development of an ability-based emotional intelligence intervention program for gifted students, High Ability Studies, 28:1, 29-41, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2017.1292895

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Israel

2016: Relative age effects in a cognitive task: A case study of youth chess (€)

The relative age effect (RAE) has been demonstrated in many youth and professional sports. In this study, we hypothesized that there would also be a RAE among youth chess players who are typically involved in a complex cognitive task without significant physical requirements. While typical RAEs have been observed in adult chess players, in this paper we wanted to focus primarily on youth chess players. In addition, we also examined RAEs in both participation rates and performance levels in a national chess championship. Therefore, the RAE was examined in a complex cognitive task that has no significant physical requirements, more specifically among youth chess players. Data were analyzed (1) for all registered Belgian youth chess players over a 5-year period (2009–2013) and (2) for participants of the Belgian youth championship 2013. Results indicated an overall RAE among all Belgian youth chess players over the last 5 years. The likelihood of participation was significantly greater for players born in the first birth-date quartile (χ² = 10.21, p  <  .05; r = −.77, p  <  .01; w = .07) and the likelihood of participation decreased when youth chess players were born in the last quartile of the year. These effects were most prominent in the under-8 and under-10 year olds. There also appeared to be a performance-related RAE. Kolmogorov–Smirnov tests (p  <  .05) showed that players born in the first months of the selection year were significantly more often in the top 10 players for each age level of the Belgian Youth Championship 2013.

Werner F. Helsen, Joseph Baker, Joerg Schorer, Christina Steingröver, Nick Wattie & Janet L. Starkes (2016) Relative age effects in a cognitive task: A case study of youth chess, High Ability Studies, 27:2, 211-221, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2016.1242063

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Belgie

2016: Intellectually gifted rural-to-urban migrant children’s attention (€)

The term “intellectually gifted rural-to-urban migrant children” refers to intellectually gifted children who are in migration from rural to urban areas. We compared performances on seven attention tasks among intellectually gifted (n = 26) and average (n = 30) rural-to-urban migrant and intellectually gifted urban children (n = 31). Our results showed that intellectually gifted rural-to-urban migrant children performed more correctly and faster on some attention tasks than did the intellectually average rural-to-urban migrant children, but they did not perform as well on some attention tasks as did the intellectually gifted urban children. Based on the attentional structures, it was evident the intellectually gifted rural-to-urban migrant children developed more mature than did either the intellectually gifted urban or the intellectually average rural-to-urban migrant children. This suggests the intellectually gifted rural-to-urban migrant children’s attention is overall superior to that of their intellectually average peers. However, there are advantages and disadvantages in terms of the quality of their attention compared to the intellectually gifted urban children. While their attentional structures seem to develop earlier, their accuracy on some of the attention tasks seems to suffer. This suggests that rural-to-urban migration is a double-edged sword for intellectually gifted children.

Hui Zhang, Yunfeng He, Ting Tao & Jian-Nong Shi (2016) Intellectually gifted rural-to-urban migrant children’s attention, High Ability Studies, 27:2, 193-209, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2016.1242064

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: China

2016: Gifted education’s reflection of country-specific cultural, political, and economic features (€)

Educational policies and practices are influenced by cultural, political, and economic factors, and this is also true of specialized educational approaches such as gifted education. Factors such as a country’s cultural tendency toward egalitarianism or meritocracy, whether the political system is centralized or decentralized, and the degree to which the economy supports basic education for all students may be reflected in the way in which a country approaches gifted education. We examined gifted and talented education policies and practices in 38 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member and partner countries and considered how those policies and practices may reflect country-specific characteristics. In this article, we discuss ways in which gifted education in OECD countries may reflect cultural, political, and economic features of countries.

Roger S. Frantz & Katie Larsen McClarty (2016) Gifted education’s reflection of country-specific cultural, political, and economic features, Gifted and Talented International, 31:1, 46-58, DOI: 10.1080/15332276.2016.1220794
Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: Gifted and Talented International | Onderwerpen: Australia, Austria, Belgie, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, Nederland, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States

2016: Giftedness counseling in Germany: Consultation reasons and issues and their relations to gender, age, and aptitude (€)

In Germany, parents can request counseling and assessment of school-related learning and behavioral issues from either independent counseling centers or school-based ones. Focusing on giftedness consultations at independent counseling centers, the goal of this study is to provide a detailed description of the reasons for and the issues discussed during the consultation process. Specifically, the frequency and relationships among each other are examined as well as the relationships with the client characteristics gender, age, and ability. A questionnaire, completed by the counseling professionals, was used to assess the reasons that were given for seeking consultation and the topics that were addressed during the counseling process at 14 psychodiagnostic counseling centers. Overall, data from 156 children and adolescents (25% female) were included in the analyses. Frequent reasons for and topics of the consultations were giftedness assessment, advocacy of gifted education, and motivation. Correlation analyses identified two separate groups of themes: “social and behavioral problems” and “learning disorders and achievement-related problems.” Whereas the motives for seeking consultation and the counseling issues were typically the same for both boys and girls, some of these varied greatly depending on age, type of school, and aptitude of the children. These results are discussed with respect to the current state of research as well as their implications for counseling practice and the qualifications of the professional counseling personnel.

Nele Hannig & Christine Koop (2016) Giftedness counseling in Germany: Consultation reasons and issues and their relations to gender, age, and aptitude, Gifted and Talented International, 31:1, 33-45, DOI: 10.1080/15332276.2016.1194672
Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: Gifted and Talented International | Onderwerpen: Germany

2016: Two studies of the empirical basis of two learning resource-oriented motivational strategies for gifted educators (€)

Two learning resource-oriented motivational strategies for gifted educators are introduced: a homeostatic orientation that aims for balance and an allostatic orientation that aims at growth. In order to establish the empirical basis of these motivational strategies, two studies were conducted with samples of students from a specialized post-secondary business school who were enrolled in grades 11–13. Study 1 focused on the empirical basis of the homeostatic orientation. It was shown that the availability of learning resources is associated with two forms of balance within an actiotope: robustness and resilience. Furthermore, it could be shown that the effects of exogenous learning resources on robustness and resilience are mediated by endogenous learning resources. The focus of Study 2 was the empirical basis of the allostatic orientation. It was shown that the availability of learning resources is associated with various indicators of growth of an actiotope. Similarly to Study 1, the effects of exogenous learning resources on outcome variables representing the growth of an actiotope were mediated by endogenous learning resources. Thus, evidence suggests that a homeostatic orientation as well as an allostatic orientation are valid motivational strategies for gifted educators.

Anamaria Vladut, Wilma Vialle & Albert Ziegler (2016) Two studies of the empirical basis of two learning resource-oriented motivational strategies for gifted educators, High Ability Studies, 27:1, 39-60, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2016.1212702
Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Germany

2016: Don’t stress: What do we really know about teaching gifted children to cope with stress and anxiety? (€)

Gifted children may experience additional stressors due to their unique characteristics. While empirical evidence suggests otherwise, qualitative studies and clinical observations indicate that gifted individuals may suffer from higher levels of stress due to perfectionistic tendencies, heightened sensitivity, social challenges, and additional external pressures. Nevertheless, empirical research regarding counseling and stress-reducing intervention outcomes remains scant. The few interventions conducted, such as Gaesser’s (2014) work using Cognitive Behavioral and Emotional Freedom techniques with gifted students, have demonstrated promising results. Recommendations include offering incentives in the form of grants and funding to researchers interested in investigating intervention outcomes and investigating stress-reducing methods and approaches, such as mindfulness, which have shown positive impact.

Steve Haberlin (2016) Don’t stress: What do we really know about teaching gifted children to cope with stress and anxiety?, Gifted and Talented International, 30:1-2, 146-151, DOI: 10.1080/15332276.2015.1137465
Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: Gifted and Talented International | Onderwerpen: United States

2016: Gender differences in self-concept, locus of control, and goal orientation in Mexican high-achieving students (€)

The study compares self-concept, locus of control, and goal orientation characteristics of male and female Mexican high school high-achieving students. Three scales were administered to 220 students; 106 (49%) were males and 114 (51%) females. By means of a discriminant analysis, both groups were compared in relation to the variables such as social self-concept, academic self-concept, achievement motivation toward study, and attributions regarding academic success or failure. It was found that female students have a better academic self-concept and a higher achievement motivation than males. Findings are consistent with previous studies in Mexico that provide evidence of females having greater emotional resources associated with school success.

Angel Alberto Valdés-Cuervo, Pedro Antonio Sánchez Escobedo & María Dolores Valadez-Sierra (2016) Gender differences in self-concept, locus of control, and goal orientation in Mexican high-achieving students, Gifted and Talented International, 30:1-2, 19-24,DOI: 10.1080/15332276.2015.1137451
Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: Gifted and Talented International | Onderwerpen: Mexico

2016: Myth busting: Do high-performance students prefer working alone? (€)

There has been a longstanding assumption that gifted, high-ability, or high-performing students prefer working alone; however, this may not be true in every case. The current study expanded on this assumption to reveal more nuanced learning preferences of these students. Sixty-nine high-performing and community-school students in Grades 5 and 6 participated. A 26-item questionnaire addressed students’ learning preferences. Nine students were interviewed after completing the questionnaire to further explore their answers. Substantial evidence supported high-performing students’ preferences for working with others. These preferences were complex and varied depending on the learning situation. Implications for future research were discussed.

Cheryl L. Walker & Bruce M. Shore (2016) Myth busting: Do high-performance students prefer working alone?, Gifted and Talented International, 30:1-2, 85-105, DOI: 10.1080/15332276.2015.1137461
Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: Gifted and Talented International | Onderwerpen: Canada

2016: Creativity in students’ writing of open-ended stories across ethnic, gender, and grade groups: An extension study from third to fifth grades (€)

The purpose of this study was to examine students’ creativity when writing open-ended stories—across ethnicity, gender, and grades. Participants were 139 students, including 67 males and 72 females, from urban and rural areas of the southwestern United States. The students were in third, fourth, and fifth grades and included three ethnicities: White, Mexican American, and Navajo. Written stories were selected from the Discovering Intellectual Strengths and Capabilities while Observing Varied Ethnic Responses (DISCOVER) project’s archives. Creative products were scored by using the Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT) by five experts. No significant differences were found between boys and girls; also, no significant differences were found across the three grade levels. The differences among the three ethnic groups were significant: the White students were more creative. Future researchers should focus on implementing comprehensive teaching methods to meet all students’ needs (e.g., the DISCOVER project). Teachers who work at schools with minority students should establish an early childhood program for teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) to help young students use the language and adapt to the culture.

Abdulnasser A. Alhusaini & C. June Maker (2016) Creativity in students’ writing of open-ended stories across ethnic, gender, and grade groups: An extension study from third to fifth grades, Gifted and Talented International, 30:1-2, 25-38, DOI: 10.1080/15332276.2015.1137452
Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: Gifted and Talented International | Onderwerpen: United States

2016: Grade skipping and the achievements of girls (€)

The aim of the present study is to assess and document the experiences of schools, parents, adolescents, and, finally, adults with grade skipping in Germany to form recommendations for handling this type of acceleration. This article is based on three studies on grade skipping; two studies conducted in schools in Lower Saxony, Germany, spanned the years 1980–2001, the first including questionnaires for parents and interviews with adolescents. The third study, conducted in 2012, consists of questionnaires for adults born between 1917 and 1987. Overall, the schools reported few intellectual problems and slightly more emotional or social ones. As for the parents, for 97% of the girls and 88% of the boys it had been the right decision. The adolescents were much happier in the higher grades as they felt they fitted in better despite some problems with older students. Of the adults, 89% of the females and 78% of the males reported they would grade skip again if conditions were the same. When problems occurred, findings revealed that when handling grade skipping, mistakes had been made due to a lack of knowledge of acceleration.

Annette Heinbokel (2016) Grade skipping and the achievements of girls, Gifted and Talented International, 30:1-2, 39-48, DOI: 10.1080/15332276.2015.1137453
Genre: Research on gifted adults, Research on gifted children
Series: Gifted and Talented International | Onderwerpen: Germany

2016: What contributes to gifted adolescent females’ talent development at a high-achieving, secondary girls’ school? (€)

The purpose of this research was to examine what contributes to gifted adolescent females’ talent development at a high-achieving girls’ school. Using Kronborg’s (2010) Talent Development Model for Eminent Women as a theoretical framework, this research examined the conditions that supported and those that hindered the participants’ talent development in the setting of their secondary girls’ school. In this qualitative study, semistructured interviews were conducted with six gifted females, 17–20 years of age, who were all identified as gifted and who achieved highly in one or more talent domains during their years at their former high-achieving secondary girls’ school. The findings of this research support the theoretical framework. The themes found to support these participants’ talent development were psychological qualities, individual abilities, opportunities to achieve in talent domain(s), allies in the family, allies beyond the family, passionate engagement in talent domain, and feelings and experiences of difference. These findings add support to the themes Kronborg (2010) found in her Talent Development Model of Eminent Women.

Charlotte Tweedale & Leonie Kronborg (2016) What contributes to gifted adolescent females’ talent development at a high-achieving, secondary girls’ school?, Gifted and Talented International, 30:1-2, 6-18, DOI: 10.1080/15332276.2015.1137450

Genre: Research on gifted adults, Research on gifted children
Series: Gifted and Talented International | Onderwerpen: Australia

2016: Cultural considerations for twice-exceptional children from Asian families (€)

Since the term twice-exceptional has been entered to the field of gifted education, many studies have investigated the population of students who possess both giftedness and disabilities. It has been shown that there are some challenges to recognizing twice-exceptional children due to current screening and identification process. For this reason, the exact picture of what this population looks like has not yet been drawn, and further studies will be necessary to determine the precise racial/ethnic configuration. This has been a barrier to investigating how to approach twice-exceptional children from culturally diverse backgrounds. This article reviewed the previous research on twice-exceptional children with cultural considerations for the students from Asian American families. Several suggestions are provided: more understanding of Asian parenting styles and parenting stress; parents as advocates for their twice-exceptional children; and interdisciplinary collaboration. Directions for future research are suggested.

Soeun Park (2016) Cultural considerations for twice-exceptional children from Asian families, Gifted and Talented International, 30:1-2,135-145, DOI: 10.1080/15332276.2015.1137464

Genre: Research on gifted children, Research on special populations
Series: Gifted and Talented International | Onderwerpen: United States

2016: Academic self-concept, achievement goals, and achievement: Is their relation the same for academic achievers and underachievers? (€)

This longitudinal study investigated the contribution of achievement goals and academic self-concept for the prediction of unexpected academic achievement (i.e., achievement that is higher or lower than expected with respect to students’ cognitive ability) in general and when comparing groups of extreme over- and underachievers. Our sample comprised 769 students (50.78% female, 160 underachievers, 176 overachievers) in the highest track of the German secondary school system who were assessed three times (in grade 5, 6, and 8). Controlling for students’ cognitive ability, results supported the reciprocal effects model for positive developmental relations between academic self-concept and achievement in the overall sample. Furthermore, academic self-concept and performance goals showed significant reciprocal relations. For achievement goals, only mastery goals showed positive reciprocal relationships with academic achievement, whereas performance goals (approach and avoidance) showed no significant relations. However, for underachieving students, academic self-concept as well as mastery goals were unrelated to later achievement, and for overachieving students, both constructs showed positive relations with later achievement. Findings indicate that interventions aimed at positive goal development might also produce positive and lasting impacts on academic self-concept and—mediated by self-concept—on academic achievement. However, this does not seem to apply to underachieving students.

Franzis Preckel & Martin Brunner (2016) Academic self-concept, achievement goals, and achievement: Is their relation the same for academic achievers and underachievers?, Gifted and Talented International, 30:1-2, 68-84, DOI: 10.1080/15332276.2015.1137458
Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: Gifted and Talented International | Onderwerpen: Germany

2016: Current status of twice-exceptional students: A look at legislation and policy in the United States (€)

Educational legislation and policy can lead to effective educational practices, especially for student populations that have had equal access to education addressing their needs, such as students with disabilities and gifted students. This study was an examination of state legislation and policy related to twice-exceptional learners in the United States. Forty-two administrators from state departments of education completed questionnaires, and 131 state policy and legislation documents were reviewed to reveal mention of twice-exceptional learners. Results indicate the (a) lack of state legislation and policy related to twice-exceptional students; (b) need for collaboration among general, gifted, and special education professionals; (c) importance of specific definitions and characteristics for twice-exceptionality; and (d) existence of models for initiatives related to twice exceptionality. The researchers intend for these results to lead educators to advocate for the inclusion of twice-exceptional learners in law and policy at state and national levels.

Nielsen Pereira, J. Dusteen Knotts & Julia Link Roberts (2016) Current status of twice-exceptional students: A look at legislation and policy in the United States, Gifted and Talented International, 30:1-2, 122-134, DOI: 10.1080/15332276.2015.1137463

Genre: Research on gifted children, Research on special populations
Series: Gifted and Talented International | Onderwerpen: United States

2016: Students’ perceptions of real engagement in active problem solving (€)

The purpose of this study was to explore 42 elementary students’ perceptions of their experiences while they were engaging in a class in which the Real Engagement in Active Problem Solving (REAPS) model was used. A qualitative study was conducted to analyze their responses. Individual interviews and artifacts were collected and analyzed. Themes were identified in students’ perceptions across interview questions: topic, process, activity, collaboration, support, intrapersonal skills, and emotions. Researchers recommend integrating REAPS in different contexts and collecting adequate background information as a way to understand the effectiveness of REAPS. Differentiation principles applied in REAPS were beneficial to students’ engagement, thereby helping them to achieve long-lasting learning.

I-Chen Wu, Randal Pease & C. June Maker (2016) Students’ perceptions of real engagement in active problem solving, Gifted and Talented International, 30:1-2, 106-121, DOI: 10.1080/15332276.2015.1137462
Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: Gifted and Talented International | Onderwerpen: United States

2015: Is being gifted always an advantage? Peer relations and self-concept of gifted students (€)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between identified gifted adolescents and adolescents not identified as gifted in terms of social acceptance and self-concept (peer relations, academic, and general). In addition, we aimed to investigate the differences between two groups of students identified according to different identification criteria (i.e. intelligence test and teacher assessment), and whether the relationship between students’ giftedness and the indicators of their social adjustment was moderated by gender. A total of 404 Slovenian elementary school students (191 males; 47%, 213 females; 53%) participated in the study; among them 85 (21%) were identified as gifted. No significant differences were found between gifted and non-gifted students in positive sociometric nominations and social preference; gifted students received less negative nominations and had lower social impact, but were assessed as more socially accepted by their teachers. Gifted students reported higher academic and general but not peer relations self-concept. No differences in social acceptance and self-concept were found between the groups of gifted students identified with regard to different identification criteria. In addition, we found significant interaction effects between gender and giftedness for peer relations self-concept. The results indicate the importance of investigating individual differences among gifted students in future studies.

Katja Košir, Marina Horvat, Urška Aram & Nina Jurinec (2015) Is being gifted always an advantage? Peer relations and self-concept of gifted students, High Ability Studies, 27:2, 129-148, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2015.1108186

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Slovenia

2015: Is having low motivation the same as not having high motivation? Comparing the CSAS-R and the SAAS-R (€)

The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships among the Challenges to Scholastic Achievement Scale-Revised (CSAS-R) and The School Attitude Assessment Survey-Revised (SAAS-R) items and factors to determine whether the negative scales on the CSAS-R seemed to be measuring the same constructs as those that are measured on the SAAS-R. All SAAS-R items are positively worded, and all subscales are designed to measure positive manifestations of the constructs. The CSAS-R is a complementary instrument to the SAAS-R. All items represent negative manifestations of attitudes, cognitions, or behaviors. For this study, we focused on the four constructs from the SAAS-R and the CSAS that are directly comparable and complementary: positive and negative academic self-perceptions, positive and negative attitudes toward teachers and classes, high and low goal valuation, and regulated and unregulated study behavior. This comparison of CSAS-R and SAAS-R examined alternative conceptions of the dimensionality of the positive items (from the SAAS-R) and the negative items (from the CSAS-R) in an effort to better understand whether agreeing to statements about negative behaviors or attitudes seemed to represent the polar opposite of disagreeing to statements about positive behaviors or attitudes.

Betsy McCoach, Sarah D. Newton, Del Siegle, Ugur Baslanti & Katherine Picho (2015) Is having low motivation the same as not having high motivation? Comparing the CSAS-R and the SAAS-R, High Ability Studies, 27:1, 61-81, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2015.1103209

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: United States

2015: Are teachers biased when nominating students for gifted services? Evidence from Kazakhstan (€)

The purpose of this experimental, vignette study was to analyze whether certain demographic characteristics of students (i.e. gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status) influence secondary education teachers in referring students for gifted services in Kazakhstan. A sample of 132 teachers were randomly assigned to one of eight profiles describing a typical gifted student with particular demographics and requested to indicate how strongly they believed the student should or should not be recommended for gifted services. Results evidenced that gender, ethnicity, and SES did not influence the Kazakhstani teachers’ referrals. The implications of teacher nominations in students’ identification for gifted programs and the discussion on the role of gifted education as perceived by school teachers in Kazakhstan and elsewhere are provided.

Daniel Hernández-Torrano & Xeniya Tursunbayeva (2015) Are teachers biased when nominating students for gifted services? Evidence from Kazakhstan, High Ability Studies, 27:2, 165-177, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2015.1108187

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Kazakhstan

2015: How Finnish elementary school teachers meet the needs of their gifted students (€)

The aim of this research is to determine how Finnish elementary school teachers meet the needs of gifted students in regular classroom settings. In a survey of 202 teachers, the participants described their gifted education practices. The descriptions were analyzed using deductive-oriented content analysis. The results showed that, with gifted students, the teachers mainly differentiated the assignments and materials, and also fostered independent learning. The findings highlight the fact that whether gifted students’ needs are met and how depends upon the teacher. Teachers need more education in how to support gifted students more effectively and in differentiating teaching for the gifted. In this process, teacher education and in-service education have crucial roles.

Sonja Laine & Kirsi Tirri (2015) How Finnish elementary school teachers meet the needs of their gifted students, High Ability Studies,27:2, 149-164, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2015.1108185

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Finland

2015: The influence of emotions and learning preferences on learning strategy use before transition into high-achiever track secondary school (€)

Research on the relationships between students’ achievement emotions and their (self-regulated) learning behavior is growing. However, little is known about the relationships between students’ learning preferences and achievement emotions and the extent to which these influence learning strategies. In this study we, first, looked at the learning-style preferences (self-regulated, externally regulated, or impulsive learning) of 200 fourth graders who were about to start high-achiever track secondary school in Germany in the following school year. Second, we analyzed whether students who prefer self-regulated learning, externally regulated learning, or impulsive learning differ concerning the achievement emotions of enjoyment, anger, boredom, and anxiety. Third, we examined whether the degree to which students prefer self-regulated learning in combination with their achievement emotions predicts if and how students actually apply various aspects of self-regulated learning such as cognitive learning strategies, goal setting, and strategy monitoring during their learning. Fourth, we explored whether achievement emotions mediate relationships between more or less successful learning and subsequent learning behavior. Students in our sample did not prefer a self-regulated learning style over an externally regulated or impulsive learning style; and achievement emotions were shown to be related to students’ learning-style preferences. Students’ preference for self-regulated learning in combination with their achievement emotions predicted various aspects of their learning. However, achievement emotions did not mediate changes in learning behavior found after less successful learning.

Stefanie Obergriesser & Heidrun Stoeger (2015) The influence of emotions and learning preferences on learning strategy use before transition into high-achiever track secondary school, High Ability Studies, 27:1, 5-38, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2015.1100980

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Germany

2015: Experiencing more mathematics anxiety than expected? Contrasting trait and state anxiety in high achieving students (€)

This study examined mathematics anxiety among high and low achieving students (N = 237, grades 9 and 10) by contrasting trait (habitual) and state (momentary) assessments of anxiety. Previous studies have found that trait anxiety measures are typically rated higher than state measures. Furthermore, the academic self-concept has been identified to play a moderating role in the trait-state discrepancy, with higher academic self-concept leading to a lower discrepancy (i.e. less overestimation of trait anxiety if state assessments reflect actual experience). Therefore, we assumed that high achievers who were expected to have high academic self-concepts would exhibit a smaller trait-state discrepancy than low achievers. Results confirmed these assumptions and revealed that high achievers even underestimated their trait anxiety. Implications are discussed.

  1. A.-L. Roos, M. Bieg, T. Goetz, A.C. Frenzel, J. Taxer & M. Zeidner (2015) Experiencing more mathematics anxiety than expected? Contrasting trait and state anxiety in high achieving students, High Ability Studies, 26:2, 245-258, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2015.1095078
Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Germany

2015: Understanding adolescent gifted girls with ADHD: motivated and achieving (€)

The manifestation of ADHD in girls who are gifted can place strains on motivation and academic performance as they enter their middle school years. The purpose of this collective case study research was to examine the lived experiences of five girls who are gifted with ADHD in order to gain an understanding of the array of coping mechanisms used by this population as they navigate the academic pressures of their secondary school years. The girls in this study participated in a variety of educational settings including public, private, and charter schools. Using the experience sampling method, findings were drawn from the analysis of multiple data sources including experience sampling, document analysis, surveys, and interviews, in areas related to motivation as a result of their feelings toward school, relationships with teachers and family, and strategies used to center and refocus during times of stress.

C. Matthew Fugate & Marcia Gentry (2015) Understanding adolescent gifted girls with ADHD: motivated and achieving, High Ability Studies, 27:1, 83-109, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2015.1098522

Genre: Research on gifted children, Research on special populations
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: United States

2015: Mathematically gifted students and high achievement: the role of motivation and classroom structure (€)

One of the most intriguing questions for those who study intellectually gifted students is why some of them reach peak performances at school and others don’t. Moderator theories of giftedness assume that domain-specific gifts are transformed into achievement in a process influenced by non-cognitive and environmental variables. Thus, the current study investigates differences in the non-cognitive construct motivation (achievement goals, interest, self-concept, self-efficacy, implicit theories) and perception of classroom environment (classroom structure, class climate) between mathematically gifted high achievers (n = 66) and mathematically gifted students with non-high achievement (n = 144) using a latent variable approach. Gifted high achievers expressed higher levels of motivation than non-high achievers. Furthermore, they perceived a classroom structure that provides more tasks with a focus on learning and more autonomy.

Marko Lüftenegger, Marlene Kollmayer, Evelyn Bergsmann, Gregor Jöstl, Christiane Spiel & Barbara Schober (2015) Mathematically gifted students and high achievement: the role of motivation and classroom structure, High Ability Studies, 26:2, 227-243, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2015.1095075
Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Austria

2015: A comparison of multiple facets of self-concept in gifted vs. non-identified Israeli students (€)

This study compares facets of self-concept in gifted and non-identified Israeli adolescent students. The self-concept mean score profile of gifted vs. non-selected Israeli students was significantly different, with gifted students reporting higher mean levels of academic self-concept, but lower mean levels of social, personal, and physical self-concepts when compared with their non-identified counterparts. Overall, gifted students showed different patterns of self-concept than their peers. The data are discussed in view of theory and past research in the gifted literature.

Moshe Zeidner & Inbal Shani-Zinovich (2015) A comparison of multiple facets of self-concept in gifted vs. non-identified Israeli students, High Ability Studies, 26:2, 211-226, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2015.1095076

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Israel

2015: The role of emotions, motivation, and learning behavior in underachievement and results of an intervention (€)

Research has shown that various individual factors play an important role in the underachievement of gifted students. Most often discussed as predictors of underachievement are motivation, learning behavior, and emotions. To examine which specific constructs from these fields simultaneously predict underachievement among gifted fourth graders, logistic regression was performed on data from eighty-five highly intelligent students out of thirty-four classrooms. Students reported on their self-efficacy, learning goal orientation, use of text-reduction strategies, anxiety, boredom, anger, and enjoyment. Emerging predictors of underachievement were self-efficacy, use of text-reduction strategies, and anxiety. As these constructs are all connected to self-regulated learning in different ways, an intervention was implemented which successfully encourages self-regulated learning among students of differing cognitive abilities. Assessing the intervention’s effectiveness for different ability levels was important as the intervention was not a pull-out program, but was integrated into regular classroom instruction in which all students in these classes participated. Results from multilevel longitudinal models showed positive intervention effects for learning behavior among gifted underachievers, but no intervention effects on self-efficacy and anxiety could be detected.

Stefanie Obergriesser & Heidrun Stoeger (2015) The role of emotions, motivation, and learning behavior in underachievement and results of an intervention, High Ability Studies, 26:1, 167-190, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2015.1043003
Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Germany

2015: A cross-cultural study of possible iatrogenic effects of gifted education programs: tenth graders’ perceptions of academically high performing classmates (€)

Previous empirical studies have yielded inconclusive results about peer perceptions of academically high performing students. The purpose of this study was to investigate students’ perceptions of the intellectual ability, positive social qualities, and popularity of a hypothetical new high performing classmate. Participants were 1060 Vietnamese, South Korean, British, Australian, Peruvian, and Spanish boys and girls in 10th grade. The results revealed that the perceptions of academically high performing classmates differed by country group. Positive perceptions of intellectual ability and social qualities were commonly found in all countries except the two Asian countries (Vietnam and South Korea), where the students reported more neutral views of high performers. In conclusion, it is argued that there is no evidence for possible iatrogenic effects of gifted education programs aiming at high achievements

Hyerim Oh, Margaret Sutherland, Niamh Stack, Maria del Mar Badia Martín, Sheyla Blumen, Quoc Anh-Thu Nguyen, Catherine Wormald, Julie Maakrun & Albert Ziegler (2015) A cross-cultural study of possible iatrogenic effects of gifted education programs: tenth graders’ perceptions of academically high performing classmates, High Ability Studies, 26:1, 152-166, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2015.1044080
Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Australia, Peru, South Korea, Spain, United Kingdom, Vietnam

2015: Inquiry learning for gifted children (€)

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of support on knowledge acquisition of gifted learners and their flow and mood during inquiry learning. Sixty-four gifted primary school children were randomly assigned to one of three conditions differing in support given in an inquiry task. Results showed that learners who were allowed to experiment themselves learned more, experienced more flow, and felt more positive toward the task than those who were not given this opportunity, but only when they were guided through the inquiry cycle by prompts to generate hypotheses, perform experiments, and draw conclusions. The overall conclusion is that gifted children benefit more from open, complex tasks when their learning process is externally regulated.

Tessa H.S. Eysink, Loes Gersen & Hannie Gijlers (2015) Inquiry learning for gifted children, High Ability Studies, 26:1, 63-74, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2015.1038379

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Nederland

2015: Social-perspective coordination and gifted adolescents’ friendship quality (€)

This research examined links among academic ability, social-perspective coordination, and friendship quality, within the context of gifted adolescents’ friendships. The sample consisted of 120 early adolescents (59 girls, 61 boys), 81 of whom were identified as gifted. Academic ability, sex, and grade significantly predicted social-perspective coordination (an indicator of psychosocial maturity) in multiple regression analyses. Social-perspective coordination, perceptions (self-concept) of ability to make and keep friends, academic ability, sex, and grade predicted perceptions of the overall quality of friendships. Being a female, seventh grader, or adolescent not identified as gifted, significantly predicted higher friendship quality. Social-perspective coordination and self-concept based on having a close friend predicted higher levels of friendship quality for the gifted participants.

Catherine A. Masden, Olivia N. Leung, Bruce M. Shore, Barry H. Schneider & Stephen J. Udvari (2015) Social-perspective coordination and gifted adolescents’ friendship quality, High Ability Studies, 26:1, 3-38, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2015.1028613

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Canada

2015: A model of parental achievement-oriented psychological control in academically gifted students (€)

This study investigated achievement-oriented parent socialization as it pertains to school avoidance in a sample of gifted students. A serial mediation model examining relationships among parental achievement-oriented psychological control (APC), fear of academic failure, academic amotivation, and school avoidance was tested. The sample included 230 gifted youth (Mage = 13.36; SD = 1.67) involved in summer programming. After factor structure and internal consistency of the instruments were confirmed, separate mediation models were analyzed for mother and father psychological control. In both models, bootstrap evidence supported the indirect relationship between parental APC and school avoidance (R2 = .29 mother/.29 father) through fear of academic failure (R2 = .18/.17) and academic amotivation (R2 = .10/.08). Many researchers of parental socialization and motivation focus on the brighter side of being gifted. Findings of this study follow a darker path of controlling socialization and avoidance-based psychological constructs that create problems in a subset of gifted students.

Alex C. Garn & Jennifer L. Jolly (2015) A model of parental achievement-oriented psychological control in academically gifted students,High Ability Studies, 26:1, 105-116, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2015.1028614

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: United States

2015: Social coping and self-concept among young gifted students in Ireland and the United States: a cross-cultural study (€)

Social coping and self-concept were explored among Irish (n = 115) and American (n = 134) grades 3–8 students. Denying one’s giftedness or the impact it has on peer relationships were associated with poor self-concept in both samples. Among Irish students, denying giftedness was associated with more positive self-concept when paired with a high activity level. Engaging in many activities in the US sample and helping one’s peers in the Irish sample were positive predictors of academic self-concept. Findings suggest young gifted students may benefit from learning more about their exceptional abilities and their impact on peers. They should also be encouraged to engage in extracurricular activities and find ways to use their exceptional abilities to support their peers.

Jennifer Riedl Cross, Colm O’Reilly, Mihyeon Kim, Sakhavat Mammadov & Tracy L. Cross (2015) Social coping and self-concept among young gifted students in Ireland and the United States: a cross-cultural study, High Ability Studies, 26:1, 39-61, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2015.1031881

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Ireland, United States

2015: A positive psychological viewpoint for success at school – 10 characteristic strengths of the Finnish high-achieving students (€)

People who exploit their strengths flourish; they are not only engaged with their goals, but also to their well-being and the content of life. In this study, interest focused on the high-achieving students in the Finnish general upper secondary education, in other words, on straight-A graduates’ characteristic strengths. This was a narrative study in which the data were obtained through written narratives and narrative interviews among 14 Finnish straight-A graduates. The data were analyzed with narrative analyzing methods. Ten typical strengths found and further categorized into three key dimensions were: (1) the thirst of knowledge and passion for learning, (2) fortitude and authenticity, and (3) love. This study implied that the youth’s school paths and well-being actively increased their own characteristic strengths.

Mari Salmela & Satu Uusiautti (2015) A positive psychological viewpoint for success at school – 10 characteristic strengths of the Finnish high-achieving students, High Ability Studies, 26:1, 117-137, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2015.1019607

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Finland

2015: Critical and creative thinking as learning processes at top-ranking Chinese middle schools: possibilities and required improvements (€)

Fostering and enabling critical and creative thinking of students is considered an important goal, and it is assumed that in particular, talented students have considerable potential for applying such high-level cognitive processes for learning in classrooms. However, Chinese students are often considered as rote learners, and that learning environments at Chinese schools will not allow thinking critically and creatively. The present exploratory study examines these assumptions with students at top-ranking middle schools in mainland China who have been selected for their high achievement scores in the examinations required for acceptance to such schools. Our findings in eight large mathematics classrooms (n = 381) strongly suggest that it is possible to acquire knowledge by thinking critically and creatively in these traditionally instructed classes, and that higher achieving students use such processes more intensively than lower achieving students. In addition, the study provides pathways for promoting these high-level cognitive processes for learning in particularly with lower achieving students. Finally, the results indicate that the extracurricular activities that are prescribed to all students at Chinese middle schools should be redesigned to offer more opportunities for critical and creative thinking.

Z.K. Liu, J. He & B. Li (2015) Critical and creative thinking as learning processes at top-ranking Chinese middle schools: possibilities and required improvements, High Ability Studies, 26:1, 139-152, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2015.1015501

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: China

2014: Speed of information processing in generally gifted and excelling-in-mathematics adolescents (€)

A considerable amount of recent evidence suggests that speed of information processing (SIP) may be related to general giftedness as well as contributing to higher mathematical ability. To date, no study has examined SIP associated with both general giftedness (G) and excellence in mathematics (EM). This paper presents a part of more extensive research aimed at a multidimensional examination of mathematical giftedness, which is a complex function of the G factor and EM factor. The research population consisted of four groups of 10th–11th grade students who differed in their G level and EM level. 190 participants performed five SIP tests: Visual-matchingCrossout of numbersDigitsymbolSymbolsearch and Simple arithmetic exercises. We found that the G–EM group outperformed the three other study groups on all five tests. The findings reveal that between-group differences in performance on Crossout of numbers and Simple arithmetic exercises tests are associated with both G and EM factors, whereas especially the G factor had an effect on students’ scores on DigitsymbolSymbolsearch and Visualmatching tests. In addition, we found gender differences on the Digitsymbol and Symbolsearch tests. The results of this study suggest that EM and G factors are interrelated but represent different traits with respect to the SIP.

N. Paz-Baruch, M. Leikin, J. Aharon-Peretz & R. Leikin (2014) Speed of information processing in generally gifted and excelling-in-mathematics adolescents, High Ability Studies, 25:2, 143-167, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2014.971102
Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Israel

2014: Conceptions of giftedness and expertise put to the empirical test (€)

Recent handbooks of giftedness or expertise propose a plethora of conceptions on the development of excellent performance but, to our knowledge, there are no comparative studies that provide empirical evidence of their validity to guide researchers and practitioners in their adoption of a particular conception. This study sought to close that gap by conducting an empirical comparison of the major approaches to giftedness and expertise currently in use: the IQ model, the performance model, the moderator model, and the systemic model. The four models were tested in a longitudinal study with a sample of N = 350 German students attending university preparatory schools; 25% of the sample had been assigned to special classes for the gifted. The construct and predictive validity of the four models were tested by means of structural equation modeling. Theoretical considerations along with our results indicated a differentiation among the models whereby some could only predict while others could also explain the emergence of excellent performance and thereby yield valuable information for the design of interventions. The empirical comparison of the approaches showed that they were unequally suited for the two challenges. For prediction purposes, the performance approach proved best while, for explanations, the moderator and systemic approaches were the most promising candidates. Even so, the latter did demonstrate conceptual and/or methodological problems. The IQ approach was superseded by the other approaches on both prediction and explanation. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.

Bettina Harder, Wilma Vialle & Albert Ziegler (2014) Conceptions of giftedness and expertise put to the empirical test, High Ability Studies, 25:2, 83-120, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2014.968462

Genre: Concepts of giftedness, Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Germany

2014: The little emperor: Chinese parents’ assessment of their own, their partner’s and their only child’s intelligence (€)

This study set out to examine whether Chinese parents, more than people from other nations, over-estimate the intelligence of their son (little emperor) compared to their daughter. In this study, 155 pairs of married couples from mainland China estimated their own, their partner’s and their only child’s overall intelligence and 13 “multiple intelligences.” They also completed a short measure of the Big Five personality traits. Replicating previous studies, fathers rated themselves higher than mothers for almost all types of intelligence. Results revealed, however, no parental sex differences in the estimates of children’s multiple intelligences. Both parents attributed higher overall, verbal, and musical intelligence, but lower existential intelligence to their child than to themselves. Multiple regressions indicated that estimates of verbal, logical–mathematical, spatial and intrapersonal intelligence were the best predictors of estimates of overall intelligence. Participants’ openness and neuroticism were significant predictors of self-rated intelligence. The results were interpreted in relation to specific Chinese social and cultural influences, though there seemed to be no “little emperor” effect.

Adrian Furnham & Chun Wu (2014) The little emperor: Chinese parents’ assessment of their own, their partner’s and their only child’s intelligence, High Ability Studies, 25:2, 121-141, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2014.966065

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: China

2014: Gender differences in mathematics and science: the role of the actiotope in determining individuals’ achievements and confidence in their own abilities (€)

Despite changes, gender differences in math and science continue to exist in some countries. We examined whether the actiotopes of boys and girls at the high school level in math and science differed and the extent to which (a) their actiotope components, (b) the progressive development of their actiotopes (dynamic perspective), and (c) the co-adaptation of their actiotopes (systems perspective) function as predictors for girls’ and boys’ achievements and confidence in one’s own abilities in math and science. To answer these questions, we examined girls and boys (N = 361) in Canada, the Czech Republic, and Germany with a questionnaire. The results suggest that girls are less effective at progressively developing their actiotopes in the fields of math and science and that modifications in their actiotopes were less well balanced by stabilizing forces. Independent of gender, the actiotope aspects considered here are suited to predicting achievements and confidence in one’s own abilities in math and science.

Albert Ziegler, Heidrun Stoeger, Bettina Harder, Kyungbin Park, Šárka Portešová & Marion Porath (2014) Gender differences in mathematics and science: the role of the actiotope in determining individuals’ achievements and confidence in their own abilities, High Ability Studies, 25:1, 35-51, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2014.916092
Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Canada, Czech Republic, Germany

2014: What is more important for fourth-grade primary school students for transforming their potential into achievement: the individual or the environmental box in multidimensional conceptions of giftedness? (€)

Multidimensional models of giftedness specify individual and environmental moderators or catalysts that help transform potential into achievement. However, these models do not state whether the importance of the ‘individual boxes’ and the ‘environmental boxes’ changes during this process. The present study examines whether, during the early stages of talent development, the ‘environmental boxes’ play a more important role than the ‘individual boxes.’ To answer this question, we analyzed individual moderators and environmental moderators of achievement for fourth-grade primary-school students (N = 976). A cluster analysis that included intelligence, achievement, and two individual moderators (motivation and learning behavior) revealed three groups of students, two of which are of particular interest, as they both displayed high intelligence and achievement but differed in their motivation and learning behavior. Questionnaire data on family environment (filled out by parents, N = 682) and school environment (filled out by teachers, N = 47) supported the assumption that among young students an inauspicious set of individual moderators, in this case maladaptive motivation and learning behavior, can be compensated by a sufficiently propitious set of environmental moderators, in this case parents’ and teachers’ learning support, cultural capital within the family, and teachers’ commitment to support their students’ learning.

Heidrun Stoeger, Julia Steinbach, Stefanie Obergriesser & Benjamin Matthes (2014) What is more important for fourth-grade primary school students for transforming their potential into achievement: the individual or the environmental box in multidimensional conceptions of giftedness?, High Ability Studies, 25:1, 5-21, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2014.914381

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Germany

2014: Excellence gaps: what they are, why they are bad, and how smart contexts can address them … or make them worse (€)

Every country – and even every community – has populations of students who severely underperform relative to other groups and to their own potential. These performance differences are generally called achievement gaps, and they tend to focus on gaps at basic levels of academic proficiency. But such gaps also exist among the highest levels of achievement, a problem labeled excellence gaps. Recent research provides evidence that these differential achievement effects are due – at least in part – to debilitating contextual factors, such as poverty, negative peer pressure, and discrimination. Given the increasingly recognizable “digital turn” in the classroom, access to and thoughtful use of emergent technologies could play a role in shrinking excellence gaps. Unfortunately, research shows such technologies disproportionately exist in relatively wealthy, predominantly white schools. We identify the potential relationship between lack of availability to technology and widening excellence gaps.

Jacob Hardesty, Jenna McWilliams & Jonathan A. Plucker (2014) Excellence gaps: what they are, why they are bad, and how smart contexts can address them … or make them worse, High Ability Studies, 25:1, 71-80, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2014.907646
Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: United States

2014: Classroom contexts for creativity (€)

Various factors influence the development of creative potential, including everything from individual differences to the kinds of experiences and opportunities that creators experience throughout the lifespan. When it comes to nurturing creativity in the classroom, the learning environment is one of the most important factors – determining, in large part, whether creative potential will be supported (or suppressed). In short, classroom context matters. It is one thing to recognize that the classroom environment impacts the development of creative potential, it is quite another to understand just what it takes to develop an optimally supportive creative learning environment. This is because many of the features of optimal learning environments are quite subtle and even counterintuitive. In this paper, we discuss insights from the research on how teachers might establish a creativity-supportive learning environment in their classroom.

Ronald A. Beghetto & James C. Kaufman (2014) Classroom contexts for creativity, High Ability Studies, 25:1, 53-69, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2014.905247
Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Worldwide

2014: Characteristics of the home context for the nurturing of gifted children in Saudi Arabia (€)

This study investigates factors in the home environment and their influence on children’s analytical, creative, and practical skills. A sample of 294 gifted children (195 male) was recruited from grades 4–7 in Saudi Arabia, where the family context is highly influenced by the principles of Islam. Results did not confirm the effect of birth order, but showed that (1) mother’s education was an important factor for gifted children’s creativity; (2) the number of boys in the family was negatively associated with gifted boys’ creativity (r = −.21); and (3) Quran-related learning experiences were positively related to gifted girls’ analytical (r = .46) and creative (r = .42) skills. Implications for understanding non-Western environments for gifted children are discussed.

Sascha Hein, Mei Tan, Abdullah Aljughaiman & Elena L. Grigorenko (2014) Characteristics of the home context for the nurturing of gifted children in Saudi Arabia, High Ability Studies, 25:1, 23-33, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2014.906970
Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Saudi Arabia

2013: Student perceptions of high-achieving classmates (€)

The reported study investigated students’ perceptions of their high-performing classmates in terms of intelligence, social skills, and conscientiousness in different school subjects. The school subjects for study were examined with regard to cognitive, physical, and gender-specific issues. The results show that high academic achievements in particular school subjects lead to negative reactions in the peer group whereas high achievements in other school subjects result in positive peer reactions. In contrast, the respondents’ gender and the gender of the successful classmates had little influence on student perceptions of high achievers. The results are discussed in regard to their implications for gifted education.

Marion Händel, Wilma Vialle & Albert Ziegler (2013) Student perceptions of high-achieving classmates, High Ability Studies, 24:2, 99-114, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2013.843139
Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: Germany

2013: Effects of schoolwide cluster grouping and within-class ability grouping on elementary school students’ academic achievement growth (€)

We evaluated the effects of one year of schoolwide cluster grouping on the academic achievement growth of gifted and non-identified elementary students using a piecewise multilevel growth model. Scores from 186 non-identified and 68 gifted students’ Measures of Academic Progress Reading and Math scores were examined over three school years. In 2008–2009 within-class ability grouping was used. In 2009–2010 schoolwide cluster grouping was implemented. In 2010–2011 students once again were grouped only within classrooms by ability and students identified as gifted were spread across all classrooms at each grade level. Results suggest that schoolwide cluster grouping influenced student performance in the year following its implementation, but only for mathematics and not the area of reading.

Michael S. Matthews, Jennifer A. Ritchotte & Matthew T. McBee (2013) Effects of schoolwide cluster grouping and within-class ability grouping on elementary school students’ academic achievement growth, High Ability Studies, 24:2, 81-97, DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2013.846251

Genre: Research on gifted children
Series: High Ability Studies | Onderwerpen: United States

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