In the theory of positive disintegration (TPD), Dabrowski described overexcitabilities (OEs), manifestations of inner energy with a developmental purpose that appear more common in gifted individuals. Unfortunately, most studies present OEs outside of the context of the original theory as if they were standalone traits applicable to gifted students. In this atheoretical conceptualization, OEs seem to define the personality trait of openness to experience described in the five-factor model of personality (FFM) as each OE can be matched with a specific facet of openness. Descriptions of facets of openness and corresponding OEs are strongly similar. In this article we argue that they are conceptually equivalent and that current research on openness and OE supports this assertion. The FFM has robust empirical support, and TPD lacks empirical support; additionally, OEs as currently presented in gifted education deviate from TPD’s original tenets. Therefore, gifted education should shift its way of explaining these tendencies by framing them as the personality trait of openness to experience rather than OEs.
M. Alexandra Vuyk, Barbara A. Kerr & Thomas S. Krieshok(2016)From overexcitabilities to openness: Informing gifted education with psychological science,Gifted and Talented International,31:1,59-71,DOI: 10.1080/15332276.2016.1220796
Using a grounded theory approach to the study of historical texts and an expert interview, this study investigates culturally embedded conceptions of giftedness as evidenced in one of the most important Iranian literary canons, The Gulistan, to guide the development of education and programming for gifted and talented students in Iran. The Gulistan depicts the real world in its stories. Historically, The Gulistan has provided guidance to gifted and wise individuals regarding how to live life. Investigating these conceptions in The Gulistan’s stories gives us significant insight into what historically has counted as giftedness in the Iranian culture. Main themes arising from this study include Saheb Ferasat (insighted), Shukhdideh (wit), Dana & Aghel (practical intelligent), Kheradmand (wise), and Hakim (sage). This study is an exploration of an approach to developing an Iranian conception of giftedness that is embedded in the culture. The framework and findings may be of interest to scholars, policy makers, and educators in various roles.
The Munich Model of Giftedness (MMG) by Heller and his colleagues, developed for the identification of gifted children, is adapted and expanded, with the aim of making it more universally usable as a model for the pathway from talents to performance. On the side of the talent-factors, the concept of multiple intelligences is introduced, and the moderating factors proposed in the MMG are discussed and categorized. The environmental moderators are interpolated as to incorporate not only “school-settings” but also “work-settings”.
Motivation and emotional regulation are important for the sustained focused study and practice required for high levels of achievement and creative productivity in adulthood. Using the talent development model proposed by the authors as a framework, the authors discuss several important psychosocial skills based on the psychological research literature that are antecedent and concurrent to the types and level of motivation needed for transitions from ability to competence, competence to expertise, and beyond.
Paula Olszewski-Kubilius, Rena F. Subotnik & Frank C. Worrell(2015)Antecedent and concurrent psychosocial skills that support high levels of achievement within talent domains,High Ability Studies,26:2,195-210,DOI: 10.1080/13598139.2015.1095077
Recent handbooks of giftedness or expertise propose a plethora of conceptions on the development of excellent performance but, to our knowledge, there are no comparative studies that provide empirical evidence of their validity to guide researchers and practitioners in their adoption of a particular conception. This study sought to close that gap by conducting an empirical comparison of the major approaches to giftedness and expertise currently in use: the IQ model, the performance model, the moderator model, and the systemic model. The four models were tested in a longitudinal study with a sample of N = 350 German students attending university preparatory schools; 25% of the sample had been assigned to special classes for the gifted. The construct and predictive validity of the four models were tested by means of structural equation modeling. Theoretical considerations along with our results indicated a differentiation among the models whereby some could only predict while others could also explain the emergence of excellent performance and thereby yield valuable information for the design of interventions. The empirical comparison of the approaches showed that they were unequally suited for the two challenges. For prediction purposes, the performance approach proved best while, for explanations, the moderator and systemic approaches were the most promising candidates. Even so, the latter did demonstrate conceptual and/or methodological problems. The IQ approach was superseded by the other approaches on both prediction and explanation. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.
There appears to be differing approaches, in modern education, to the identification and development of gifted students, but researchers are beginning to find some cohesiveness through approaches that examine giftedness from within broad views of human cognition and behavior. This paper takes such an approach by considering learning and memory as concerned with the processing of environmental information and its accumulation across society, where such cultural accumulation results from environmental interaction. This paper outlines a framework, developed from studies of learning and memory and environmental interaction, which is based in a novel description of information and information processing systems. This framework may be useful in providing a new way of thinking about human cognition and behavior in an evolutionary context as well as in relation to the overall accumulation of culture across human society. This framework may be useful, therefore, in examining giftedness by providing useful insights into the identification and development of gifted students, in particular, those with the high levels of expertise considered valuable as human cultural accumulation.
This article argues that research and educational practices relating to gifted students can highly benefit by linking up more closely with the mainstream of research on learning and instruction. The CLIA-model for the design of powerful learning environments that consists of four interconnected components (Competence, Learning, Intervention, and Assessment) is thereby used as a framework. The kind of learning processes needed to acquire adaptive competence are well in tune with features of exceptional performance, namely active, constructive, self-regulated and goal-oriented learning. Therefore gifted students should be taught in powerful learning environments that induce in them learning processes that embody those characteristics. Interventions focused on gifted students such as acceleration, grouping and differentiated instruction can benefit from taking into account the components and characteristics of the CLIA-model.